Theobaid (1994) suggested that “etymologically, the word maritime tourism is derived from the Latin. ‘tornare’ and the Greek, Tornos’ meaning ‘a lathe or circle; the movement around a central point or axis’. This meaning changed in modern English to represent ‘one’s turn’. The suffix – ism is defined as ‘an action or process; typical behavior or quality’. While the suffix, – ism denotes ‘one that performs a given action’. When the work tour and the suffixes – ism and – ist are combined. They suggest the action of movement around a circle. One can argue that a circle represents a starting point, which ultimately returns back to its beginning. Therefore, like a circle, a tour represents a journey in that it is a round-trip, i.e., the act of leaving and then returning to the original starting point, and therefore, one who takes such a journey can be called a tourist.”
In 1941, Hunziker and Krapf defined tourism as people who travel “the sum of the phenomena and relationships arising from the travel and stay of non-residents, insofar as they do not lead to permanent residence and are not connected with any earning activity.
In 1976, the Society of England’s definition was: “Tourism is the temporary, short-term movement of people to destination outside the places where the normally live and work and their activities during the stay at each destination. It includes movements for all purposes.”
In 1981, the International Association if Scientific Experts in Tourism defined tourism in terms of particular activities selected by choice and undertaken outside the home.”
FORMS OF TOURISM
In relation to a given country, the following forms of tourism can be distinguished:
- Domestic tourism, involving residents of the given country traveling only
within this county.
- Inbound tourism, involving non-residents traveling in the given county.
- Outbound tourism, involving residents traveling in another country.
The three basic forms of tourism can be combined in various ways to derive the following categories of tourism.
- Internal tourism, which comprises domestic tourism an inbound tourism.
- National tourism, which comprises domestic tourism and outbound tourism.
- International tourism, which consists of inbound tourism and outbound tourism.
Orams defines marine tourism as “recreational activities that involves travel away from one’s place of residence and which have as their host or focus the marine environment (where the marine environment is defined as those waters which are saline and tide affected)”
This definition encompasses a wide range of activities and impacts, presenting a complicated and challenging arena for marine tourism management. The significant increase in demand for this tourist product has created a need to assess appropriate and best management practices. Many management approaches exit often grouped into regulatory hard strategies or soft visitor management techniques.
In consideration of above mentioned definitions, it can be concluded that Maritime Tourism activities are mostly based on:
- Coastal tourism (Hotel and restaurants, island and beach resorts, sea sports)
- Shipping and boating (cruise shipping yachting)
- Recreational activities (diving, snorkeling, reef walking, fishing, photography)
- Wildlife interactions (bird watching, turtle watching, whale watching, fish feeding).
Sustainable tourism is an industry committed to making a low impact on the environment and local culture, while helping to generate future employment for local people. The aim of sustainable tourism is to ensure that development brings a positive experience for the local people, tourism companies and the tourists themselves. “Sustainable tourism” is often equated with nature or eco-tourism; but sustainable tourism development means more than protecting the natural environment – it means proper consideration of host people, communities cultures, customs, lifestyles, and social and economic system”.
Global economists forecast continuing international tourism growth, especially in maritime tourism, ranging between 3 and 6 percent annually, depending on the location. As one of the worlds largest and fastest growing industries, this continuous growth will place great stress on remaining biologically diverse habitats and indigenous cultures, which are often used to support mass tourism, Tourists who promote sustainable tourism are sensitive to these dangers and seek to protect tourist destination, and to protect tourism as an industry.
Ecotourism is responsible travel to fragile, pristine, and usually protected areas that strive to be low impact and (often) small scale (as an alternative to mass tourism). Its purpose is to educate the traveler, provide funds for ecological conservation, directly benefit the economic development and political empowerment of local communities; and foster respect for different cultures and for human right. Since the 1980s ecotourism has been considered a critical endeavor by environmentalists, so that future generations may experience destinations relatively untouched by human intervention. Several university programs use this description as the working definition of ecotourism.
Generally, ecotourism focuses on volunteering, or voluntarism, personal growth and environmental responsibility. Ecotourism typically involves travel to destinations where flora, fauna, and cultural heritage are the primary attractions. One of the goals of ecotourism is to offer tourists insight into the impact of human beings on the environment, and to faster a greater appreciation of our natural habitats.
Responsible ecotourism includes programs that minimize the negative aspects of conventional tourism on the environment and enhance the cultural integrity of local people. Therefore, in addition to evaluating environ, mental and cultural factors an integral part of ecotourism is the promotion of recycling, energy efficiency, water conservation, and creation of economic opportunities for local communities and small business. For these reasons, ecotourism often appeals to environmental and social responsibility advocates.
Responsible Tourism can be regretted as a behavior. It is more than a form of tourism as it represents an approach to engaging with tourism, be that as a tourist, a business, locals at a destination or any other tourism stakeholder. It emphasizes that all stakeholders are responsible for the kind of tourism they develop or engage in. Whilst different groups will see responsibility in different ways, the shared understanding is that responsible tourism should entail an improvement in tourism. Tourism should become ‘better’ as a result of the responsible tourism approach.
Within the notion of betterment resides the acknowledgement that conflicting interests need to be balanced. However, the objective is to create better places for people to lieu in and to visit importantly, there is no blueprint for responsible tourism; what is deemed responsible may differ depending on places and cultures. Responsible Tourism is an aspiration that can be realized in different ways in different originating markets and in the diverse destinations of the world.
As with the view of Responsible Tourism, Responsible Hospitality is essentially about creating better places for people to live in, and better places for people to visit. This does not mean all forms of hospitality are also forms of tourism although hospitality in the largest sector of the tourism industry. As such we should not be surprised at overtaps between Responsible Hospitality and Responsible Tourism to the instance where place of permanent residence is also the place where the hostility service is consumed it for example a meal is consumed in a local restaurant, this does not obviate the requirement to improve the place of residence. As such, the essence of Responsible Hospitality is not contingent upon touristic forms of hostility.